Description: Homo sapiens protein kinase C, alpha (PRKCA), mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_002737): Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been reported to play roles in many different cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, cell transformation, cell cycle checkpoint, and cell volume control. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase may be a fundamental regulator of cardiac contractility and Ca(2+) handling in myocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr17:64,298,926-64,806,862 Size: 507,937 Total Exon Count: 17 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg19 chr17:64,298,970-64,800,155 Size: 501,186 Coding Exon Count: 17
ID:KPCA_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Protein kinase C alpha type; Short=PKC-A; Short=PKC-alpha; EC=18.104.22.168; FUNCTION: Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, tumorigenesis, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascade involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation in glioma cells. In intestinal cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 and induction of the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN1B. Exhibits anti-apoptotic function in glioma cells and protects them from apoptosis by suppressing the p53/TP53-mediated activation of IGFBP3, and in leukemia cells mediates anti-apoptotic action by phosphorylating BCL2. During macrophage differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1), is translocated to the nucleus and is associated with macrophage development. After wounding, translocates from focal contacts to lamellipodia and participates in the modulation of desmosomal adhesion. Plays a role in cell motility by phosphorylating CSPG4, which induces association of CSPG4 with extensive lamellipodia at the cell periphery and polarization of the cell accompanied by increases in cell motility. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells where it can act as a tumor promoter and is implicated in malignant phenotypes of several tumors such as gliomas and breast cancers. Negatively regulates myocardial contractility and positively regulates angiogenesis, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in arteries. Mediates hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, in part through a MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2)- dependent signaling pathway, and upon PMA treatment, is required to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy up to heart failure and death, by increasing protein synthesis, protein-DNA ratio and cell surface area. Regulates cardiomyocyte function by phosphorylating cardiac troponin T (TNNT2/CTNT), which induces significant reduction in actomyosin ATPase activity, myofilament calcium sensitivity and myocardial contractility. In angiogenesis, is required for full endothelial cell migration, adhesion to vitronectin (VTN), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-dependent regulation of kinase activation and vascular tube formation. Involved in the stabilization of VEGFA mRNA at post-transcriptional level and mediates VEGFA-induced cell proliferation. In the regulation of calcium-induced platelet aggregation, mediates signals from the CD36/GP4 receptor for granule release, and activates the integrin heterodimer ITGA2B- ITGB3 through the RAP1GAP pathway for adhesion. During response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), may regulate selective LPS-induced macrophage functions involved in host defense and inflammation. But in some inflammatory responses, may negatively regulate NF- kappa-B-induced genes, through IL1A-dependent induction of NF- kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA/IKBA). Upon stimulation with 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylates EIF4G1, which modulates EIF4G1 binding to MKNK1 and may be involved in the regulation of EIF4E phosphorylation. Phosphorylates KIT, leading to inhibition of KIT activity. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. COFACTOR: Binds 3 calcium ions per subunit. The ions are bound to the C2 domain (By similarity). ENZYME REGULATION: Classical (or conventional) PKCs (PRKCA, PRKCB and PRKCG) are activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Three specific sites; Thr-497 (activation loop of the kinase domain), Thr-638 (turn motif) and Ser-657 (hydrophobic region), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation. SUBUNIT: Recruited in a circadian manner into a nuclear complex which also includes BMAL1 and GNB2L1/RACK1 (By similarity). Interacts with ADAP1/CENTA1, CSPG4 and PRKCABP. Binds to SDPR in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Interacts with PICK1 (via PDZ domain). Interacts with TRIM41. INTERACTION: Q24008:inaD (xeno); NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-1383528, EBI-195326; P31431:SDC4; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-1383528, EBI-3913237; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Mitochondrion membrane; Peripheral membrane protein (Probable). Nucleus. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 C2 domain. SIMILARITY: Contains 2 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc fingers. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Body Height Cara L Carty et al. Human molecular genetics 2012, Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe)., Human molecular genetics.
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P17252
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.