Human Gene PAPOLG (ENST00000238714.8) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma (PAPOLG), mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_022894)
RefSeq Summary (NM_022894): This gene encodes a member of the poly(A) polymerase family which catalyzes template-independent extension of the 3' end of a DNA/RNA strand. This enzyme shares 60% identity to the well characterized poly(A) polymerase II (PAPII) at the amino acid level. These two enzymes have similar organization of structural and functional domains. This enzyme is exclusively localized in the nucleus and exhibits both nonspecific and CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor)/AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation activity. This gene is located on chromosome 2 in contrast to the PAPII gene, which is located on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: SRR1803615.233884.1, SRR1803612.281775.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: single sample supports all introns SAMEA1965299, SAMEA1966682 [ECO:0000348] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## MANE Ensembl match :: ENST00000238714.8/ ENSP00000238714.3 RefSeq Select criteria :: based on conservation, expression, longest protein ##RefSeq-Attributes-END##
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000238714.8
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000115421.13
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr2:60,756,268-60,802,086 Size: 45,819 Total Exon Count: 22 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr2:60,756,479-60,797,160 Size: 40,682 Coding Exon Count: 22 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr2:60,756,268-60,802,086)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (736 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
CGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCardsHGNC
PubMedStanford SOURCEUniProtKBWikipedia

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Poly(A) polymerase gamma; Short=PAP-gamma; EC=; AltName: Full=Neo-poly(A) polymerase; Short=Neo-PAP; AltName: Full=Polynucleotide adenylyltransferase gamma; AltName: Full=SRP RNA 3'-adenylating enzyme;
FUNCTION: Responsible for the post-transcriptional adenylation of the 3'-terminal of mRNA precursors and several small RNAs including signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, nuclear 7SK RNA, U2 small nuclear RNA, and ribosomal 5S RNA.
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1).
COFACTOR: Binds 2 magnesium ions. Also active with manganese (By similarity).
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed predominantly in testis, and weakly in other tissues. Overexpressed in several tumors.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=BAB14604.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: PAPOLG
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome (2), acute cystitis (2), bladder disease (2)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 5.70 RPKM in Thyroid
Total median expression: 126.78 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -58.10211-0.275 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -1257.404926-0.255 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR002934 - Nucleotidyltransferase
IPR011068 - NuclTrfase_I_C
IPR007012 - PolA_pol_cen_dom
IPR007010 - PolA_pol_RNA-bd_dom
IPR014492 - PolyA_polymerase

Pfam Domains:
PF01909 - Nucleotidyltransferase domain
PF04928 - Poly(A) polymerase central domain
PF04926 - Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q9BWT3
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologGenome Browser
Gene Details    Gene Details
Gene Sorter    Gene Sorter
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence   Protein Sequence
AlignmentAlignment   Alignment

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding
GO:0003723 RNA binding
GO:0004652 polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity
GO:0005524 ATP binding
GO:0016740 transferase activity
GO:0016779 nucleotidyltransferase activity
GO:0046872 metal ion binding

Biological Process:
GO:0006378 mRNA polyadenylation
GO:0006397 mRNA processing
GO:0031123 RNA 3'-end processing
GO:0043631 RNA polyadenylation

Cellular Component:
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0016604 nuclear body

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AF312211 - Homo sapiens neo-poly(A) polymerase mRNA, complete cds.
BX647824 - Homo sapiens mRNA; cDNA DKFZp686F0486 (from clone DKFZp686F0486).
BC016738 - Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:4106370), partial cds.
AK314663 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ95510, Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma (PAPOLG), mRNA.
BC068493 - Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:4374566, containing frame-shift errors.
BC110906 - Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:3870473), partial cds.
AK021867 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ11805 fis, clone HEMBA1006278, moderately similar to POLY(A) POLYMERASE (EC
BC111701 - Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:133307 IMAGE:40038554), complete cds.
BC113747 - Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:133308 IMAGE:40038563), complete cds.
JD240626 - Sequence 221650 from Patent EP1572962.
JD523677 - Sequence 504701 from Patent EP1572962.
JD540408 - Sequence 521432 from Patent EP1572962.
AY029162 - Homo sapiens SRP RNA 3' adenylating enzyme/pap2 mRNA, complete cds.
KJ894588 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_03982 PAPOLG gene, encodes complete protein.
AJ308101 - Homo sapiens mRNA for poly(A) polymerase gamma (PAPOLG gene).
AK023544 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ13482 fis, clone PLACE1003885, moderately similar to POLY(A) POLYMERASE (EC
BC028593 - Homo sapiens poly(A) polymerase gamma, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:4695507), partial cds.
AB209304 - Homo sapiens mRNA for poly(A) polymerase gamma variant protein.
AK023034 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ12972 fis, clone NT2RP2005942, weakly similar to POLY(A) POLYMERASE (EC
AK024249 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ14187 fis, clone NT2RP2005776, weakly similar to POLY(A) POLYMERASE TYPE 2 (EC
JD257279 - Sequence 238303 from Patent EP1572962.
JD160658 - Sequence 141682 from Patent EP1572962.
JD236641 - Sequence 217665 from Patent EP1572962.
JD276735 - Sequence 257759 from Patent EP1572962.
JD296196 - Sequence 277220 from Patent EP1572962.
JD498961 - Sequence 479985 from Patent EP1572962.
JD286339 - Sequence 267363 from Patent EP1572962.
JD263436 - Sequence 244460 from Patent EP1572962.
JD090902 - Sequence 71926 from Patent EP1572962.
JD472061 - Sequence 453085 from Patent EP1572962.
JD315400 - Sequence 296424 from Patent EP1572962.
JD254947 - Sequence 235971 from Patent EP1572962.
JD091672 - Sequence 72696 from Patent EP1572962.
JD302869 - Sequence 283893 from Patent EP1572962.
JD551761 - Sequence 532785 from Patent EP1572962.
JD314086 - Sequence 295110 from Patent EP1572962.
JD089214 - Sequence 70238 from Patent EP1572962.
JD328644 - Sequence 309668 from Patent EP1572962.
JD213174 - Sequence 194198 from Patent EP1572962.
JD063975 - Sequence 44999 from Patent EP1572962.
JD441132 - Sequence 422156 from Patent EP1572962.
HZ083366 - JP 2015513906-A/723: Stem Cell Microparticles.
HZ437147 - JP 2015529450-A/723: Stem Cell Microparticles.
HZ482097 - JP 2015535430-A/2603: TERMINALLY MODIFIED RNA.
JC172351 - Sequence 723 from Patent WO2013150303.
JC514760 - Sequence 5013 from Patent WO2014113089.
JC573162 - Sequence 723 from Patent WO2014125276.
JC582850 - Sequence 723 from Patent WO2014125277.
JE954546 - Sequence 723 from Patent WO2015052526.
JE956299 - Sequence 723 from Patent WO2015052527.
LF138051 - JP 2016507550-A/723: Method of Producing Microparticles.
LF161907 - JP 2016513950-A/1973: Oligomers with improved off-target profile.
LF163016 - JP 2016513095-A/723: Stem Cell Microparticles and miRNA.
LF953768 - JP 2016534103-A/723: Stem Cell Microparticles and miRNA.
LG006113 - KR 1020150004822-A/723: STEM CELL MICROPARTICLES.
LG053809 - KR 1020150059168-A/723: STEM CELL MICROPARTICLES.
LG241048 - KR 1020160035087-A/723: STEM CELL MICROPARTICLES AND MIRNA.
LQ072348 - Sequence 2672 from Patent EP2964234.
LV471133 - JP 2016534036-A/723: Stem Cell Microparticles and miRNA.
MA733733 - JP 2017140048-A/2603: TERMINALLY MODIFIED RNA.
MP015096 - Sequence 299 from Patent WO2019016252.
JD352380 - Sequence 333404 from Patent EP1572962.
JD524467 - Sequence 505491 from Patent EP1572962.
JD365440 - Sequence 346464 from Patent EP1572962.
JD490148 - Sequence 471172 from Patent EP1572962.
MP129823 - Sequence 723 from Patent EP3470073.
MP162746 - Sequence 723 from Patent WO2019069093.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa03018 - RNA degradation

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: B2RBH4, NM_022894, PAP2, PAPG, PAPOG_HUMAN, Q969N1, Q9BWT3, Q9H8L2, Q9HAD0, uc002sai.1, uc002sai.2, uc002sai.3, uc002sai.4, uc002sai.5
UCSC ID: uc002sai.5
RefSeq Accession: NM_022894
Protein: Q9BWT3 (aka PAPOG_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS1863.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.