Human Gene IL1B (ENST00000263341.7) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_000576)
RefSeq Summary (NM_000576): The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: SRR5189655.109183.1, SRR5189652.136888.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support SAMEA1965299, SAMEA1966682 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## RefSeq Select criteria :: based on conservation, expression, longest protein ##RefSeq-Attributes-END##
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000263341.7
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000125538.12
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr2:112,829,751-112,836,779 Size: 7,029 Total Exon Count: 7 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr2:112,830,361-112,836,229 Size: 5,869 Coding Exon Count: 6 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr2:112,829,751-112,836,779)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (269 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
CGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCardsHGNC
ReactomeStanford SOURCEUniProtKBWikipedia

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Interleukin-1 beta; Short=IL-1 beta; AltName: Full=Catabolin; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: Produced by activated macrophages, IL-1 stimulates thymocyte proliferation by inducing IL-2 release, B-cell maturation and proliferation, and fibroblast growth factor activity. IL-1 proteins are involved in the inflammatory response, being identified as endogenous pyrogens, and are reported to stimulate the release of prostaglandin and collagenase from synovial cells.
SUBUNIT: Monomer.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Secreted. Note=The lack of a specific hydrophobic segment in the precursor sequence suggests that IL-1 is released by damaged cells or is secreted by a mechanism differing from that used for other secretory proteins.
DOMAIN: The similarity among the IL-1 precursors suggests that the amino ends of these proteins serve some as yet undefined function.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the IL-1 family.
WEB RESOURCE: Name=Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology; URL="";
WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Interleukin-1 entry; URL="";
WEB RESOURCE: Name=SeattleSNPs; URL="";
WEB RESOURCE: Name=SHMPD; Note=The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database; URL="";

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: IL1B
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: gastric cancer risk after h. pylori infection* (318), periodontal disease (36), toxic shock syndrome (26), aggressive periodontitis (26), endometritis (23), gingivitis (23), cervical adenitis (22), clostridium difficile colitis (21), bacterial meningitis (21), muckle-wells syndrome (19), euthyroid sick syndrome (19), synovitis (18), vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (18), prosthetic joint infection (18), bacterial vaginosis (18), arthritis (17), aseptic meningitis (16), poems syndrome (16), periodontitis (16), inflammatory bowel disease (16), chorioamnionitis (16), gastritis (16), blau syndrome (16), bagassosis (15), campylobacteriosis (15), laryngitis (15), physiological polycythemia (14), aphthous stomatitis (14), pneumoconiosis (14), chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (14), pulmonary edema (14), lymphadenitis (13), somatoform disorder (13), nervous system disease (13), recurrent corneal erosion (13), uremic pruritus (13), tuberculosis (12), pharyngitis (12), cysticercosis (12), toxoplasmosis (12), rheumatoid arthritis (12), root resorption (12), vaginal disease (12), central nervous system disease (12), schnitzler syndrome (11), monocytic leukemia (11), pulpitis (11), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (11), crohn's colitis (11), chagas disease (11), corneal ulcer (11), kashin-beck disease (11), funisitis (11), colitis (11), salmonellosis (10), spondylosis (10), prion disease (10), leishmaniasis (10), pericoronitis (10), cerebral hemorrhage (10), wells syndrome (10), complex regional pain syndrome (10), extrapulmonary tuberculosis (10), pneumonia (10), intracranial hypertension (10), gout (10), osteoarthritis (9), ulcerative colitis (9), systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (9), peritonitis (9), periapical periodontitis (9), viral encephalitis (9), gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (9), malaria (9), otitis media (9), cinca syndrome (9), idiopathic neutropenia (9), gingival disease (8), keratitis (8), pertussis (8), silicosis (8), encephalitis (8), adult-onset still's disease (8), burning mouth syndrome (8), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (8), fatty liver disease (8), chronic follicular conjunctivitis (8), staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (8), diversion colitis (8), intervertebral disc disease (8), endogenous depression (8), gastric ulcer (8), actinic prurigo (8), bone inflammation disease (8), prostatitis (8), meningococcemia (8), peptic ulcer disease (8), endometriosis (8), osteomyelitis (8), atrophic gastritis (8), dengue shock syndrome (8), chronic fatigue syndrome (8), lung disease (8), contact dermatitis (8), familial mediterranean fever, ar (7), appendicitis (7), autoinflammation, lipodystrophy, and dermatosis syndrome (7), q fever (7), dupuytren contracture (7), rheumatic disease (7), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (7), pyelonephritis (7), pleural disease (7), psoriatic arthritis (7), palindromic rheumatism (7), meningitis (7), esophagitis (7), opisthorchiasis (7), neuritis (7), burns (7), erdheim-chester disease (7), duodenal ulcer (7), transient cerebral ischemia (7), brain edema (7), leptospirosis (7), paratyphoid fever (7), lyme disease (7), typhoid fever (7), lacrimal apparatus disease (7), fascioliasis (7), gastroenteritis (7), gastroesophageal reflux (7), chikungunya (7), endometrial disease (6), demyelinating disease (6), scrub typhus (6), allergic contact dermatitis (6), familial cold-induced inflammatory syndrome 1 (6), pericarditis (6), atherosclerosis (6), cerebral palsy (6), dental pulp disease (6), extrinsic cardiomyopathy (6), gastroschisis (6), corneal edema (6), tonsillitis (6), h. pylori infection (6), trypanosomiasis (6), retinitis pigmentosa 73 (6), vaginitis (6), chlamydia (6), interstitial lung disease (6), middle ear disease (6), irritant dermatitis (6), peptic esophagitis (6), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (6), uterine disease (6), focal epilepsy (6), intestinal disease (6), gastrointestinal system disease (5), eye disease (5), stachybotrys chartarum (5), sarcoidosis 1 (5), purulent labyrinthitis (5), limbal stem cell deficiency (5), chronic granulomatous disease (5), osteosclerotic myeloma (5), post-traumatic stress disorder (5), respiratory system disease (5), jejunoileitis (5), commensal bacterial infectious disease (5), tinea favosa (5), eales disease (5), central nervous system vasculitis (5), retinitis pigmentosa 60 (5), bone deterioration disease (5), mouth disease (5), idiopathic hypercalciuria (5), pain disorder (5), perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis (5), galactosemia (4), acute vascular insufficiency of intestine (4), joint disorders (4), pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic (4), astrocytoma (4), primary amebic meningoencephalitis (4), alzheimer disease (4), sudden infant death syndrome (4), eumycotic mycetoma (4), cercarial dermatitis (4), placenta disease (4), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (4), pulmonary fibrosis (4), central nervous system tuberculosis (4), osteoporosis (4), glomerulonephritis (4), myocarditis (3), crohn's disease (3), diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent (3), stomatitis (3), leprosy (3), obesity (3), hypersensitivity reaction type ii disease (2), stomach cancer (2), multiple sclerosis, disease progression, modifier of (2), asthma (2), viral infectious disease (2), primary bacterial infectious disease (2), female reproductive system disease (2), stomach disease (1), reproductive system disease (1), macular degeneration, age-related, 1 (1), toxic encephalopathy (1), myocardial infarction (1), colorectal cancer (1), bronchial disease (1), hypersensitivity reaction disease (1), acquired metabolic disease (1), glucose metabolism disease (1), immune system disease (1), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile (1), behcet syndrome (1)
* = Manually curated disease association

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 12.24 RPKM in Whole Blood
Total median expression: 46.38 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -22.2087-0.255 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -155.50610-0.255 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR008996 - Cytokine_IL1-like
IPR002348 - IL1_HBGF
IPR003502 - IL1_propep
IPR020877 - Interleukin-1_CS
IPR000975 - Interleukin_1
IPR003294 - InterleukinIL1AB
IPR003296 - InterleukinIL1B

Pfam Domains:
PF00340 - Interleukin-1 / 18
PF02394 - Interleukin-1 propeptide

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help

- X-ray MuPIT

- X-ray MuPIT

- X-ray
To conserve bandwidth, only the images from the first 3 structures are shown.
1ITB - X-ray MuPIT 1L2H - X-ray MuPIT 1S0L - X-ray MuPIT
1T4Q - X-ray MuPIT 1TOO - X-ray MuPIT 1TP0 - X-ray MuPIT
1TWE - X-ray MuPIT 1TWM - X-ray MuPIT 21BI - X-ray MuPIT
2I1B - X-ray MuPIT 2KH2 - NMR MuPIT 2NVH - X-ray MuPIT
31BI - X-ray MuPIT 3LTQ - X-ray MuPIT 3O4O - X-ray MuPIT
3POK - X-ray MuPIT 41BI - X-ray MuPIT 4DEP - X-ray MuPIT
4I1B - X-ray MuPIT 5I1B - X-ray MuPIT 6I1B - NMR MuPIT
7I1B - NMR MuPIT 9ILB - X-ray MuPIT

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P01584
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005149 interleukin-1 receptor binding
GO:0005178 integrin binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding

Biological Process:
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity
GO:0001660 fever generation
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0002711 positive regulation of T cell mediated immunity
GO:0006915 apoptotic process
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0007566 embryo implantation
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0009743 response to carbohydrate
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity
GO:0010575 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression
GO:0010718 positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
GO:0010829 negative regulation of glucose transport
GO:0014805 smooth muscle adaptation
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0030213 hyaluronan biosynthetic process
GO:0030335 positive regulation of cell migration
GO:0030593 neutrophil chemotaxis
GO:0030730 sequestering of triglyceride
GO:0030949 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway
GO:0031622 positive regulation of fever generation
GO:0031663 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032308 positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion
GO:0032496 response to lipopolysaccharide
GO:0032611 interleukin-1 beta production
GO:0032635 interleukin-6 production
GO:0032725 positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production
GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production
GO:0032755 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production
GO:0032757 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production
GO:0033129 positive regulation of histone phosphorylation
GO:0033198 response to ATP
GO:0034116 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion
GO:0035066 positive regulation of histone acetylation
GO:0035234 ectopic germ cell programmed cell death
GO:0035505 positive regulation of myosin light chain kinase activity
GO:0035690 cellular response to drug
GO:0042102 positive regulation of T cell proliferation
GO:0043122 regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:0043123 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:0043407 negative regulation of MAP kinase activity
GO:0043491 protein kinase B signaling
GO:0045080 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process
GO:0045086 positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process
GO:0045410 positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process
GO:0045429 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
GO:0045766 positive regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0045833 negative regulation of lipid metabolic process
GO:0045840 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0046330 positive regulation of JNK cascade
GO:0046627 negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway
GO:0046827 positive regulation of protein export from nucleus
GO:0050691 regulation of defense response to virus by host
GO:0050766 positive regulation of phagocytosis
GO:0050796 regulation of insulin secretion
GO:0050805 negative regulation of synaptic transmission
GO:0050900 leukocyte migration
GO:0050995 negative regulation of lipid catabolic process
GO:0050996 positive regulation of lipid catabolic process
GO:0050999 regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity
GO:0051044 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis
GO:0051091 positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
GO:0051092 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
GO:0051781 positive regulation of cell division
GO:0060355 positive regulation of cell adhesion molecule production
GO:0060559 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity
GO:0070164 negative regulation of adiponectin secretion
GO:0070372 regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
GO:0070487 monocyte aggregation
GO:0070498 interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0071260 cellular response to mechanical stimulus
GO:0071310 cellular response to organic substance
GO:0071407 cellular response to organic cyclic compound
GO:0071639 positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production
GO:0097192 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand
GO:1900745 positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade
GO:1901224 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:1903140 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier
GO:2000778 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion
GO:2001240 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand

Cellular Component:
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005764 lysosome
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0030141 secretory granule
GO:0031982 vesicle
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  M15330 - Human interleukin 1-beta (IL1B) mRNA, complete cds.
X56087 - Human mRNA for prointerleukin 1 beta.
BC008678 - Homo sapiens interleukin 1, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:9216 IMAGE:3875593), complete cds.
E01230 - cDNA encoding a polypeptide,GIF precursor having antitumor activity.
E11934 - cDNA encoding precursor of human interleukin-1 beta.
E12090 - Human cDNA encoding GIF that has anti-tumor activity.
K02770 - Human monocyte interleukin 1 (IL-1) mRNA, complete cds.
M54933 - Homo sapiens interleukin 1 precursor (IL1A) mRNA, complete cds.
AX419978 - Sequence 315 from Patent WO0198537.
JD469441 - Sequence 450465 from Patent EP1572962.
JD271920 - Sequence 252944 from Patent EP1572962.
JD357502 - Sequence 338526 from Patent EP1572962.
JD279885 - Sequence 260909 from Patent EP1572962.
JD228013 - Sequence 209037 from Patent EP1572962.
JD129290 - Sequence 110314 from Patent EP1572962.
JD455414 - Sequence 436438 from Patent EP1572962.
E00619 - cDNA encoding human interleukin-1.
X02532 - Human mRNA for interleukin 1 beta. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
JD243591 - Sequence 224615 from Patent EP1572962.
JD166945 - Sequence 147969 from Patent EP1572962.
JD300669 - Sequence 281693 from Patent EP1572962.
E01591 - cDNA encoding human interleukin-1.
JD146299 - Sequence 127323 from Patent EP1572962.
AF043335 - Homo sapiens interleukin 1 beta (IL1b) mRNA, partial cds.
JD442396 - Sequence 423420 from Patent EP1572962.
AB451494 - Homo sapiens IL1B mRNA for interleukin-1 beta precursor, partial cds, clone: FLJ80228DABN.
AK313983 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ94633.
BT007213 - Homo sapiens interleukin 1, beta mRNA, complete cds.
KJ891449 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_00843 IL1B gene, encodes complete protein.
KR709717 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00005321 IL1B (IL1B) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
DQ890673 - Synthetic construct clone IMAGE:100003303; FLH164977.01X; RZPDo839E04158D interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ893854 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100008314; FLH164974.01L; RZPDo839E04157D interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) gene, encodes complete protein.
CR407679 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834C113D for gene IL1B, interleukin 1, beta complete cds, without stopcodon.
AB463798 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB6367, Homo sapiens IL1B gene for interleukin 1 beta, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
JD178889 - Sequence 159913 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04010 - MAPK signaling pathway
hsa04060 - Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
hsa04210 - Apoptosis
hsa04620 - Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
hsa04621 - NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
hsa04623 - Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway
hsa04640 - Hematopoietic cell lineage
hsa04940 - Type I diabetes mellitus
hsa05010 - Alzheimer's disease
hsa05020 - Prion diseases
hsa05140 - Leishmaniasis
hsa05142 - Chagas disease
hsa05332 - Graft-versus-host disease

BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project
h_mspPathway - Msp/Ron Receptor Signaling Pathway
h_nthiPathway - NFkB activation by Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae
h_il1rPathway - Signal transduction through IL1R
h_il5Pathway - IL 5 Signaling Pathway

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P01584 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5660663 Caspase-8 cleaves IL1B precursor
R-HSA-445753 IL1B,Myr82K-Myr83K-IL1A:IL1R1
R-HSA-446130 Interleukin-1 receptor type 2 binds Interleukin 1
R-HSA-448703 Interleukin-1 family precursors are cleaved by caspase-1
R-HSA-445752 Interleukin-1 receptor type 1: Interleukin 1 binds Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein, membrane associated isoform
R-HSA-450133 IL1R1:IL1:IL1RAP binds MYD88 homodimer
R-HSA-446692 IRAK1 binds to MYD88 within the IL1R complex
R-HSA-446634 IRAK4 is activated by autophosphorylation
R-HSA-446648 IL1R1:IL1:IL1RAP:MYD88 homodimer binds IRAK4
R-HSA-446894 TRAF6 binding leads to IRAK1:TRAF6 release
R-HSA-446701 IRAK4-activated IRAK1 autophosphorylates
R-HSA-446694 IRAK4 phosphorylates IRAK1
R-HSA-446862 Hyperphosphorylated IRAK1 associates with TRAF6
R-HSA-446868 The Interleukin 1 receptor complex binds Tollip
R-HSA-5660668 CLEC7A/inflammasome pathway
R-HSA-9020702 Interleukin-1 signaling
R-HSA-448706 Interleukin-1 processing
R-HSA-6783783 Interleukin-10 signaling
R-HSA-6785807 Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling
R-HSA-5607764 CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling
R-HSA-446652 Interleukin-1 family signaling
R-HSA-449147 Signaling by Interleukins
R-HSA-5621481 C-type lectin receptors (CLRs)
R-HSA-1280215 Cytokine Signaling in Immune system
R-HSA-168249 Innate Immune System
R-HSA-168256 Immune System

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: IL1B_HUMAN, IL1F2, NM_000576, P01584, Q53X59, Q53XX2, Q7M4S7, Q7RU01, Q96HE5, Q9UCT6, uc002tii.1, uc002tii.2, uc002tii.3
UCSC ID: uc002tii.3
RefSeq Accession: NM_000576
Protein: P01584 (aka IL1B_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS2102.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.