Human Gene ATF2 (ENST00000409635.5) Description and Page Index
Description: Transcriptional activator, probably constitutive, which binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) (consensus: 5'- GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3'), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. Interaction with JUN redirects JUN to bind to CRES preferentially over the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate response elements (TRES) as part of an ATF2/JUN complex. (from UniProt P15336) RefSeq Summary (NM_001256092): This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000409635.5 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000115966.17 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr2:175,074,280-175,168,203 Size: 93,924 Total Exon Count: 14 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg38 chr2:175,074,609-175,130,162 Size: 55,554 Coding Exon Count: 10
ID:ATF2_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2; Short=cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2; AltName: Full=Activating transcription factor 2; AltName: Full=Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 2; Short=CREB-2; Short=cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 2; AltName: Full=HB16; AltName: Full=cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1; FUNCTION: Transcriptional activator, probably constitutive, which binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) (consensus: 5'- GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3'), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. Interaction with JUN redirects JUN to bind to CRES preferentially over the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate response elements (TRES) as part of an ATF2/JUN complex. SUBUNIT: Binds DNA as a dimer and can form a homodimer in the absence of DNA. Can form a heterodimer with JUN. Interacts with SMAD3 and SMAD4. Binds through its N-terminal region to UTF1 which acts as a coactivator of ATF2 transcriptional activity. INTERACTION: P01100:FOS; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-1170906, EBI-852851; P05412:JUN; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-1170906, EBI-852823; Q15532:SS18; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-1170906, EBI-2560599; A4PIW0:SYT-SSX2; NbExp=11; IntAct=EBI-1170906, EBI-6050533; Q99986:VRK1; NbExp=5; IntAct=EBI-1170906, EBI-1769146; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Abundant expression seen in the brain. PTM: Phosphorylation of Thr-69 by MAPK14 and MAPK11, and at Thr-71 by MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK11, MAPK12 and MAPK14 in response to external stimulus like insulin causes increased transcriptional activity. Phosphorylated by PLK3 following hyperosmotic stress. Also phosphorylated and activated by JNK and CaMK4. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the bZIP family. ATF subfamily. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 bZIP (basic-leucine zipper) domain. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 C2H2-type zinc finger. CAUTION: It is uncertain whether Met-1 or Met-19 is the initiator. WEB RESOURCE: Name=Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology; URL="http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/ATF2ID718ch2q31.html";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P15336
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
Molecular Function: GO:0000977 RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0000980 RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0000981 RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0001077 transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding GO:0001102 RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding GO:0001158 enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0001228 transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding GO:0003676 nucleic acid binding GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003682 chromatin binding GO:0003700 transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0003705 transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity GO:0004402 histone acetyltransferase activity GO:0005515 protein binding GO:0008134 transcription factor binding GO:0008140 cAMP response element binding protein binding GO:0016740 transferase activity GO:0019901 protein kinase binding GO:0035497 cAMP response element binding GO:0043565 sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0046872 metal ion binding GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity
Biological Process: GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0003151 outflow tract morphogenesis GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0006366 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0006970 response to osmotic stress GO:0006974 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0009414 response to water deprivation GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0016525 negative regulation of angiogenesis GO:0016573 histone acetylation GO:0031573 intra-S DNA damage checkpoint GO:0032915 positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production GO:0043525 positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process GO:0045444 fat cell differentiation GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter GO:0050680 negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation GO:0051090 regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity GO:0060612 adipose tissue development GO:0097186 amelogenesis GO:1902110 positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process