Human Gene HBB (ENST00000647020.1) from GENCODE V39
Description: Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues. (from UniProt P68871) RefSeq Summary (NM_000518): The alpha (HBA) and beta (HBB) loci determine the structure of the 2 types of polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin, Hb A. The normal adult hemoglobin tetramer consists of two alpha chains and two beta chains. Mutant beta globin causes sickle cell anemia. Absence of beta chain causes beta-zero-thalassemia. Reduced amounts of detectable beta globin causes beta-plus-thalassemia. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is 5'-epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000647020.1 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000244734.4 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr11:5,225,464-5,227,197 Size: 1,734 Total Exon Count: 3 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg38 chr11:5,225,598-5,227,021 Size: 1,424 Coding Exon Count: 3
ID:HBB_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Hemoglobin subunit beta; AltName: Full=Beta-globin; AltName: Full=Hemoglobin beta chain; Contains: RecName: Full=LVV-hemorphin-7; FUNCTION: Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues. FUNCTION: LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure. SUBUNIT: Heterotetramer of two alpha chains and two beta chains in adult hemoglobin A (HbA). INTERACTION: P69905:HBA2; NbExp=19; IntAct=EBI-715554, EBI-714680; TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Red blood cells. PTM: Glucose reacts non-enzymatically with the N-terminus of the beta chain to form a stable ketoamine linkage. This takes place slowly and continuously throughout the 120-day life span of the red blood cell. The rate of glycation is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus. PTM: S-nitrosylated; a nitric oxide group is first bound to Fe(2+) and then transferred to Cys-94 to allow capture of O(2). PTM: Acetylated on Lys-60, Lys-83 and Lys-145 upon aspirin exposure. PubMed:16916647 reports the identification of HBB acetylated on Lys-145 in the cytosolic fraction of HeLa cells. This may have resulted from contamination of the sample. MASS SPECTROMETRY: Mass=1310; Method=FAB; Range=33-42; Source=PubMed:1575724; DISEASE: Defects in HBB may be a cause of Heinz body anemias (HEIBAN) [MIM:140700]. This is a form of non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of Dacie type 1. After splenectomy, which has little benefit, basophilic inclusions called Heinz bodies are demonstrable in the erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, diffuse or punctate basophilia may be evident. Most of these cases are probably instances of hemoglobinopathy. The hemoglobin demonstrates heat lability. Heinz bodies are observed also with the Ivemark syndrome (asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies) and with glutathione peroxidase deficiency. DISEASE: Defects in HBB are the cause of beta-thalassemia (B-THAL) [MIM:613985]. A form of thalassemia. Thalassemias are common monogenic diseases occurring mostly in Mediterranean and Southeast Asian populations. The hallmark of beta-thalassemia is an imbalance in globin-chain production in the adult HbA molecule. Absence of beta chain causes beta(0)-thalassemia, while reduced amounts of detectable beta globin causes beta(+)-thalassemia. In the severe forms of beta-thalassemia, the excess alpha globin chains accumulate in the developing erythroid precursors in the marrow. Their deposition leads to a vast increase in erythroid apoptosis that in turn causes ineffective erythropoiesis and severe microcytic hypochromic anemia. Clinically, beta-thalassemia is divided into thalassemia major which is transfusion dependent, thalassemia intermedia (of intermediate severity), and thalassemia minor that is asymptomatic. DISEASE: Defects in HBB are the cause of sickle cell anemia (SKCA) [MIM:603903]; also known as sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anemia is characterized by abnormally shaped red cells resulting in chronic anemia and periodic episodes of pain, serious infections and damage to vital organs. Normal red blood cells are round and flexible and flow easily through blood vessels, but in sickle cell anemia, the abnormal hemoglobin (called Hb S) causes red blood cells to become stiff. They are C-shaped and resembles a sickle. These stiffer red blood cells can led to microvascular occlusion thus cutting off the blood supply to nearby tissues. DISEASE: Defects in HBB are the cause of beta-thalassemia dominant inclusion body type (B-THALIB) [MIM:603902]. An autosomal dominant form of beta thalassemia characterized by moderate anemia, lifelong jaundice, cholelithiasis and splenomegaly, marked morphologic changes in the red cells, erythroid hyperplasia of the bone marrow with increased numbers of multinucleate red cell precursors, and the presence of large inclusion bodies in the normoblasts, both in the marrow and in the peripheral blood after splenectomy. MISCELLANEOUS: One molecule of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate can bind to two beta chains per hemoglobin tetramer. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the globin family. WEB RESOURCE: Name=HbVar; Note=Human hemoglobin variants and thalassemias; URL="http://globin.bx.psu.edu/cgi-bin/hbvar/query_vars3?mode=directlink&gene=HBB"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=GeneReviews; URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/HBB"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=SHMPD; Note=The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database; URL="http://shmpd.bii.a-star.edu.sg/gene.php?genestart=A&genename=HBB"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Hemoglobin entry; URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P68871
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.