Human Gene GNGT2 (uc021tzo.1) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2 (GNGT2), transcript variant 4, mRNA.
RefSeq Summary (NM_001198756): Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010].
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg19 chr17:47,283,596-47,286,762 Size: 3,167 Total Exon Count: 4 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg19 chr17:47,284,119-47,284,784 Size: 666 Coding Exon Count: 2 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsCTDGene AllelesRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesModel InformationMethods
Data last updated: 2013-06-14

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
 
Genomic Sequence (chr17:47,283,596-47,286,762)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (69 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAVisiGeneGene interactionsTable Schema
BioGPSCGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCards
H-INVHGNCHPRDLynxMGIneXtProt
OMIMPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCEUniProtKBWikipedia

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
  ID: GBGT2_HUMAN
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2; AltName: Full=G gamma-C; AltName: Full=G-gamma-8; AltName: Full=G-gamma-9; AltName: Full=Guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein- effector interaction.
SUBUNIT: G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side (Potential).
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Retinal cones.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the G protein gamma family.

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

+  Common Gene Haplotype Alleles
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 14.29 RPKM in Cells - EBV-transformed lymphocytes
Total median expression: 46.63 RPKM



View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
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-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
 
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -49.20180-0.273 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -160.91523-0.308 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR015898 - G-protein_gamma-like_dom
IPR001770 - Gprotein-gamma

Pfam Domains:
PF00631 - GGL domain

SCOP Domains:
48670 - Transducin (heterotrimeric G protein), gamma chain

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on O14610
FrontTopSide
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
No orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
      
      
      

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0003924 GTPase activity
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity

Biological Process:
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007602 phototransduction

Cellular Component:
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0016020 membrane


-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  KJ891267 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_00661 GNGT2 gene, encodes complete protein.
JD382819 - Sequence 363843 from Patent EP1572962.
JD081956 - Sequence 62980 from Patent EP1572962.
JD132447 - Sequence 113471 from Patent EP1572962.
JD127212 - Sequence 108236 from Patent EP1572962.
AF365870 - Homo sapiens G protein cone gamma 8 subunit mRNA, complete cds.
JD423861 - Sequence 404885 from Patent EP1572962.
JD415402 - Sequence 396426 from Patent EP1572962.
BC008663 - Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:17691 IMAGE:3866242), complete cds.
JD100079 - Sequence 81103 from Patent EP1572962.
JD455733 - Sequence 436757 from Patent EP1572962.
JD061014 - Sequence 42038 from Patent EP1572962.
JD334912 - Sequence 315936 from Patent EP1572962.
JD399631 - Sequence 380655 from Patent EP1572962.
JD443301 - Sequence 424325 from Patent EP1572962.
AF493876 - Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 9 (GNG9) mRNA, complete cds.
AK312839 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ93280, Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gammatransducing activity polypeptide 2 (GNGT2), mRNA.
HQ448708 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100072152; CCSB002847_02 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2 (GNGT2) gene, encodes complete protein.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04062 - Chemokine signaling pathway

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein O14610 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-6814418 PDCL promotes formation of G-beta:G-gamma heterodimers
R-HSA-167433 G-protein beta-gamma subunits rebind the alpha-GDP subunit
R-HSA-392295 Gbeta:gamma recruits PI3K gamma
R-HSA-398040 Gbeta:gamma activation of PLC beta
R-HSA-750988 Inactive G alpha (z) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-750993 Inactive G alpha (q) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-751001 Inactive G alpha (i) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-751013 Inactive G alpha (s) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-751039 Inactive G alpha (12/13) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-112271 The receptor:G-protein complex dissociates
R-HSA-392202 Dissociation of the P2Y purinoceptor 12:Gi complex
R-HSA-392874 Dissociation of the Prostacyclin receptor:Gs complex
R-HSA-397835 Dissociation of the PAR:Gq complex
R-HSA-397891 Dissociation of the PAR:G12/13 complex
R-HSA-418576 Dissociation of the P2Y purinoceptor 1:Gq complex
R-HSA-428752 Dissociation of the TP:Gq complex
R-HSA-428918 Dissociation of the TP:G13 complex
R-HSA-744886 The Ligand:GPCR:Gs complex dissociates
R-HSA-749452 The Ligand:GPCR:Gq complex dissociates
R-HSA-749454 The Ligand:GPCR:Gi complex dissociates
R-HSA-751019 The Ligand:GPCR:G12/13 complex dissociates
R-HSA-751024 The Ligand:GPCR:Gz complex dissociates
R-HSA-3965447 G-protein subunits dissociate from WNT:FZD complex
R-HSA-8982640 G-alpha(t):G-beta-gamma:Opsins complex dissociates to active G-alpha(t)
R-HSA-8850560 G-protein alpha releases G-protein heterotrimer from PDCL
R-HSA-400097 G-beta:G-gamma inhibits Adenylate cyclase
R-HSA-400037 Gi,Go Heterotrimeric G-protein complex dissociates
R-HSA-422320 Heterotrimeric G(s) complex dissociates
R-HSA-396996 Thrombin-activated PAR binds G-protein Gq
R-HSA-418581 Activated P2Y purinoceptor 1 binds G-protein Gq
R-HSA-428749 Activated TP receptor binds G-proten Gq
R-HSA-749448 Liganded Gq-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric Gq
R-HSA-167408 The high affinity receptor complex binds to G-protein
R-HSA-392852 Activated prostacyclin receptor binds G-protein Gs
R-HSA-744887 Liganded Gs-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric Gs
R-HSA-749446 Liganded Gz-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein Gz
R-HSA-392187 Activated P2Y purinoceptor 12 binds G-protein Gi
R-HSA-749456 Liganded Gi-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein Gi
R-HSA-500717 Activation of GRIK3 homomer
R-HSA-428909 Activated TP receptor binds G-protein G13
R-HSA-8982637 Opsins binds G alpha-t
R-HSA-3965444 WNT:FZD complex promotes G-protein nucleotide exchange
R-HSA-3965441 FZD recruits trimeric G-proteins
R-HSA-167429 The receptor:G-protein complex binds GTP
R-HSA-167419 The receptor:G-protein complex releases GDP
R-HSA-400092 Alpha-2A,alpha-2C Adrenergic Receptors activate Gi.Go heterotrimeric G proteins
R-HSA-381706 GLP-1R:GLP-1 activates G(s)
R-HSA-381612 Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP1R) binds Glucagon-like peptide-1
R-HSA-432188 AVP:AVPR2 Complex binds inactive heterotrimeric G(s) complex
R-HSA-396941 Thrombin-activated PAR binds G-protein G12/13
R-HSA-751027 Liganded G12/13-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein G12/13
R-HSA-114558 Gq activation by PAR
R-HSA-418579 Gq activation by P2Y purinoceptor 1
R-HSA-428750 Gq activation by TP receptor
R-HSA-379048 Liganded Gq/11-activating GPCRs act as GEFs for Gq/11
R-HSA-392870 Gs activation by prostacyclin receptor
R-HSA-379044 Liganded Gs-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gs
R-HSA-749453 Liganded Gz-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gz
R-HSA-392195 Gi activation by P2Y purinoceptor 12
R-HSA-380073 Liganded Gi-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gi
R-HSA-392300 G beta:gamma activated PI3Kgamma converts PIP2 to PIP3
R-HSA-398193 PLC beta-mediated PIP2 hydrolysis
R-HSA-428917 G13 activation by TP receptor
R-HSA-420883 Opsins act as GEFs for G alpha-t
R-HSA-432195 AVP:AVPR2:heterotrimeric G(s) complex exchanges GDP for GTP
R-HSA-1013020 Activation of GIRK/Kir3 Channels
R-HSA-114552 G12/13 activation by PAR
R-HSA-751029 Liganded G12/13-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for G12/13
R-HSA-6814122 Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding
R-HSA-202040 G-protein activation
R-HSA-392451 G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma
R-HSA-418217 G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta
R-HSA-4086398 Ca2+ pathway
R-HSA-418597 G alpha (z) signalling events
R-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-418555 G alpha (s) signalling events
R-HSA-416482 G alpha (12/13) signalling events
R-HSA-392170 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
R-HSA-392851 Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor
R-HSA-456926 Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs)
R-HSA-418592 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1
R-HSA-428930 Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor
R-HSA-390466 Chaperonin-mediated protein folding
R-HSA-400042 Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion
R-HSA-381676 Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion
R-HSA-432040 Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins
R-HSA-500657 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
R-HSA-111885 Opioid Signalling
R-HSA-397795 G-protein beta:gamma signalling
R-HSA-3858494 Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling
R-HSA-388396 GPCR downstream signalling
R-HSA-392518 Signal amplification
R-HSA-418346 Platelet homeostasis
R-HSA-76002 Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation
R-HSA-391251 Protein folding
R-HSA-420092 Glucagon-type ligand receptors
R-HSA-422356 Regulation of insulin secretion
R-HSA-445717 Aquaporin-mediated transport
R-HSA-451326 Activation of kainate receptors upon glutamate binding
R-HSA-195721 Signaling by WNT
R-HSA-372790 Signaling by GPCR
R-HSA-109582 Hemostasis
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins
R-HSA-373080 Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors)
R-HSA-163685 Energy Metabolism
R-HSA-382551 Transport of small molecules
R-HSA-997272 Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits
R-HSA-1296041 Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels
R-HSA-112314 Neurotransmitter receptors and postsynaptic signal transmission
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction
R-HSA-500792 GPCR ligand binding
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism
R-HSA-991365 Activation of GABAB receptors
R-HSA-1296059 G protein gated Potassium channels
R-HSA-112315 Transmission across Chemical Synapses
R-HSA-977444 GABA B receptor activation
R-HSA-1296065 Inwardly rectifying K+ channels
R-HSA-112316 Neuronal System
R-HSA-977443 GABA receptor activation
R-HSA-1296071 Potassium Channels

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: B2R746, D3DTW5, GBGT2_HUMAN, GNG8, GNG9, GNGT8, NM_001198756, NP_113686, O14610
UCSC ID: uc021tzo.1
RefSeq Accession: NM_001198756
Protein: O14610 (aka GBGT2_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS11545.1

-  Gene Model Information
 
category: coding nonsense-mediated-decay: no RNA accession: NM_001198756.1
exon count: 4CDS single in 3' UTR: no RNA size: 930
ORF size: 210CDS single in intron: no Alignment % ID: 100.00
txCdsPredict score: 586.00frame shift in genome: no % Coverage: 98.17
has start codon: yes stop codon in genome: no # of Alignments: 1
has end codon: yes retained intron: no # AT/AC introns 0
selenocysteine: no end bleed into intron: 0# strange splices: 0
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-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.