Note: includes annotations on GRCh38.p12 patch sequences
These tracks contain information relevant to the regulation of transcription from the
- The Transcription track shows transcription
levels assayed by sequencing of polyadenylated RNA from a variety of cell types.
- The Layered H3K4Me1 and Layered H3K27Ac tracks show where modification of histone proteins
is suggestive of enhancer and, to a lesser extent, other regulatory activity. These histone
modifications, particularly H3K4Me1, are quite broad. The actual enhancers are typically just a
small portion of the area marked by these histone modifications.
- The Layered H3K4Me3
track shows a histone mark associated with promoters.
- The DNase I Hypersensitivity tracks indicate
where chromatin is hypersensitive to cutting by the DNase enzyme, which has
been assayed in a large number of cell types. Regulatory regions, in general, tend to be
DNase-sensitive, and promoters are particularly DNase-sensitive.
- The Txn Factor ChIP
tracks show DNA regions where transcription factors, proteins responsible for
modulating gene transcription, bind as assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies
specific to the transcription factor followed by sequencing of the precipitated DNA (ChIP-seq).
These tracks complement each other and together can shed much light on regulatory DNA. The histone
marks are informative at a high level, but they have a resolution of just ~200 bases and do not
provide much in the way of functional detail. The DNase hypersensitivity assay is higher in
resolution at the DNA level and can be done on a large number of cell types since it's just
a single assay. At the functional level, DNase hypersensitivity suggests that a
region is very likely to be regulatory in nature, but provides little information beyond that.
The transcription factor ChIP assay has a high resolution at the DNA level and, due to the very
specific nature of the transcription factors, is often informative with respect to functional
detail. However, since each transcription factor must be assayed separately, the information is
only available for a limited number of transcription factors on a limited number of cell lines.
Though each assay has its strengths and weaknesses, the fact that all of these assays are
relatively independent of each other gives increased confidence when multiple tracks are
suggesting a regulatory function for a region.
For additional information, please click on the hyperlinks for the individual tracks above.
Also note that additional histone marks and transcription information is available in other
ENCODE tracks. This integrative supertrack just shows a selection of the most informative data of
most general interest.
By default, the transcription and histone mark displays use a transparent overlay method of
displaying data from a number of cell lines in a single track. Each of the cell lines in this track
is associated with a particular color, and these colors are relatively light and saturated so
as to work best with the transparent overlay. The color of the transcription and histone mark tracks
match their versions from their lifted source on the hg19 assembly.
The DNase tracks, which were not lifted from hg19, are colored differently
to reflect similarity of cell types. There are three DNase tracks starting with a transparent
overlay DNase Signal Track to allow viewing signals from all 95 cell types in one track.
The individual signals and the same coloring scheme can also be found in the DNase HS Track
where processed peaks and hotspots are also called out as gray boxes with the darkness of
each box reflecting the underlying signal value. Lastly, in the DNase Clusters track all observed
hypersensitive regions in the different cell lines at the same location were clustered into a single box
where a number to the left of the box indicates how many cell types showed a hypersensitivity
region and the darkness of the grey box is proportional to the the maximum value seen from one of
the underlying cell lines. Clicking on these item takes you to a details page where
additional information displays, such as the list of cell types that combined to form
the cluster in the DNase Clusters track.
Specific labs and contributors for these datasets are listed in the Credits section
of the individual tracks in this super-track. The integrative view presented here was developed by Jim Kent at UCSC.
Data Use Policy
Users may freely download, analyze and publish results based on any ENCODE data without
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production laboratory(s) that generated the datasets used, as described in