Description: Homo sapiens angiotensinogen (AGT), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_001382817) RefSeq Summary (NM_001384479): The protein encoded by this gene, pre-angiotensinogen or angiotensinogen precursor, is expressed in the liver and is cleaved by the enzyme renin in response to lowered blood pressure. The resulting product, angiotensin I, is then cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to generate the physiologically active enzyme angiotensin II. The protein is involved in maintaining blood pressure, body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and preeclampsia. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension, and can cause renal tubular dysgenesis, a severe disorder of renal tubular development. Defects in this gene have also been associated with non-familial structural atrial fibrillation, and inflammatory bowel disease. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2019]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000366667.5 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000135744.8 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr1:230,702,523-230,714,122 Size: 11,600 Total Exon Count: 5 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg38 chr1:230,703,141-230,710,850 Size: 7,710 Coding Exon Count: 4
ID:ANGT_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Angiotensinogen; AltName: Full=Serpin A8; Contains: RecName: Full=Angiotensin-1; AltName: Full=Angiotensin I; Short=Ang I; Contains: RecName: Full=Angiotensin-2; AltName: Full=Angiotensin II; Short=Ang II; Contains: RecName: Full=Angiotensin-3; AltName: Full=Angiotensin III; Short=Ang III; AltName: Full=Des-Asp-angiotensin II; Flags: Precursor; FUNCTION: Essential component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a potent regulator of blood pressure, body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. In response to lowered blood pressure, the enzyme renin cleaves angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin-1 (angiotensin 1-10). Angiotensin-1 is a substrate of ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) that removes a dipeptide to yield the physiologically active peptide angiotensin-2 (angiotensin 1- 8). Angiotensin-1 and angiotensin-2 can be further processed to generate angiotensin-3 (angiotensin 2-8), angiotensin-4 (angiotensin 3-8). Angiotensin 1-7 is cleaved from angiotensin-2 by ACE2 or from angiotensin-1 by MME (neprilysin). Angiotensin 1-9 is cleaved from angiotensin-1 by ACE2. FUNCTION: Angiotensin-2 acts directly on vascular smooth muscle as a potent vasoconstrictor, affects cardiac contractility and heart rate through its action on the sympathetic nervous system, and alters renal sodium and water absorption through its ability to stimulate the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete aldosterone. FUNCTION: Angiotensin-3 stimulates aldosterone release. FUNCTION: Angiotensin 1-7 is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor MAS1 (By similarity). Has vasodilator and antidiuretic effects (By similarity). Has an antithrombotic effect that involves MAS1-mediated release of nitric oxide from platelets (By similarity). SUBUNIT: During pregnancy, exists as a disulfide-linked 2:2 heterotetramer with the proform of PRG2 and as a complex (probably a 2:2:2 heterohexamer) with pro-PRG2 and C3dg. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Secreted. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma. PTM: Beta-decarboxylation of Asp-34 in angiotensin-2, by mononuclear leukocytes produces alanine. The resulting peptide form, angiotensin-A, has the same affinity for the AT1 receptor as angiotensin-2, but a higher affinity for the AT2 receptor. DISEASE: Genetic variations in AGT are a cause of susceptibility to essential hypertension (EHT) [MIM:145500]. Essential hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than normal with no identifiable cause. DISEASE: Defects in AGT are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype). SIMILARITY: Belongs to the serpin family. CAUTION: It is uncertain whether Met-1 or Met-10 is the initiator. WEB RESOURCE: Name=GeneReviews; URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/AGT"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=SHMPD; Note=The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database; URL="http://shmpd.bii.a-star.edu.sg/gene.php?genestart=A&genename=AGT"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Angiotensin entry; URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiotensin";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P01019
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.