Human Gene BCO2 (ENST00000526088.5) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_001256397)
RefSeq Summary (NM_001256397): This gene encodes an enzyme which oxidizes carotenoids such as beta-carotene during the biosynthesis of vitamin A. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000526088.5
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000197580.13
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr11:112,176,371-112,218,135 Size: 41,765 Total Exon Count: 12 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr11:112,179,292-112,217,874 Size: 38,583 Coding Exon Count: 11 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsCTDRNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray Expression
RNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA DescriptionsPathways
Other NamesMethods
Data last updated at UCSC: 2021-01-14 15:32:12

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr11:112,176,371-112,218,135)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (539 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTATable SchemaBioGPSCGAP
EnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCardsHGNCLynx

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase; EC=1.14.99.n2; AltName: Full=B-diox-II; AltName: Full=Beta-carotene dioxygenase 2;
FUNCTION: Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9',10' double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10'-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. The apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects.
CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Beta-carotene + O(2) = 10'-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-ionone.
COFACTOR: Binds 1 Fe(2+) ion per subunit (By similarity).
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Highly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium. Also expressed in stomach, small intestine, liver, testis, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skeletal muscle and prostate (at protein level).
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=CAC27994.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 11.90 RPKM in Heart - Left Ventricle
Total median expression: 104.27 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -20.20102-0.198 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -57.20261-0.219 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR004294 - Carotenoid_Oase

Pfam Domains:
PF03055 - Retinal pigment epithelial membrane protein

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q9BYV7
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity
GO:0016702 oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
GO:0051213 dioxygenase activity

Biological Process:
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process
GO:0016116 carotenoid metabolic process
GO:0016119 carotene metabolic process
GO:0016121 carotene catabolic process
GO:0016122 xanthophyll metabolic process
GO:0042573 retinoic acid metabolic process
GO:0042574 retinal metabolic process
GO:0051881 regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process
GO:2000377 regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process

Cellular Component:
GO:0005622 intracellular
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AK315300 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ96324, highly similar to Homo sapiens beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2), mRNA.
BC041656 - Homo sapiens beta-carotene oxygenase 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:47563 IMAGE:5175925), complete cds.
BC047934 - Homo sapiens beta-carotene oxygenase 2, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:5199667), with apparent retained intron.
AK091783 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ34464 fis, clone HLUNG2003049, weakly similar to Ambystoma tigrinum RPE65 protein mRNA.
AX747181 - Sequence 706 from Patent EP1308459.
AJ290393 - Homo sapiens mRNA for putative b,b-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (B-diox-II gene).
CU692016 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100021150 5' read BCDO2 mRNA.
AF276432 - Homo sapiens putative carotene dioxygenase mRNA, complete cds.
AK027801 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ14895 fis, clone PLACE1004646, weakly similar to B.taurus mRNA for retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor p63.
AK297853 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ55991 complete cds, highly similar to Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-dioxygenase (EC 1.14.99.-).
AB096252 - Homo sapiens LOH11CR1M gene, loss of heterozygosity, 11, chromosomal region 1 gene M product.
JD119705 - Sequence 100729 from Patent EP1572962.
JD386301 - Sequence 367325 from Patent EP1572962.
JD482811 - Sequence 463835 from Patent EP1572962.
JD220840 - Sequence 201864 from Patent EP1572962.
JD062835 - Sequence 43859 from Patent EP1572962.
JD046760 - Sequence 27784 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q9BYV7 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5164399 BCO2:Fe2+ cleaves betaC to APO10al and bION
R-HSA-975634 Retinoid metabolism and transport
R-HSA-2187338 Visual phototransduction
R-HSA-6806667 Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-196854 Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors
R-HSA-388396 GPCR downstream signalling
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism
R-HSA-372790 Signaling by GPCR
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: B0YIX5, BCDO2, BCDO2_HUMAN, ENST00000526088.1, ENST00000526088.2, ENST00000526088.3, ENST00000526088.4, NM_001256397, Q96JC8, Q96JY5, Q9BYV7, uc009yyn.1, uc009yyn.2, uc009yyn.3, uc009yyn.4
UCSC ID: ENST00000526088.5
RefSeq Accession: NM_001256397
Protein: Q9BYV7 (aka BCDO2_HUMAN or BCDP_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS41716.1, CCDS58182.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.